Regions colored in brown represent centers of origin of food production. Question marks (?) indicate some uncertainty about the independent nature of the origin in a particular region.

Domestication of plants and animals began in the Fertile Crescent of Southwestern Asia (today northern Iraq and parts of Syria, Lebanon, Israel, the West Bank, Jordan and Turkey) some 10,000 - 11,000 years ago (perhaps 8,500 BCE).

Western Hemisphere

Eastern U.S.
Amazonia ?

Eastern Hemisphere

Sahel ?
West Africa ?
Ethiopia ?
Fertile Crescent
New Guinea ?


Map is a Mercator projection that exaggerates the size of areas far from the equator.

Global Maps of Human Technological Development

World Stem Cell Map

Stem Cell Research Centers Map

Global Biotch & Biosecurity Map

Global Competitiveness /
Stem Cell Research Map

Stem Cell Science

Biotechnology Clusters Map

Global Biotech Crops Map

Digital Innovation Map 2000

Industrialization Map 1850

Electrification - Earth at Night
Mayhew & Simmon (NASA/GSFC)

Maps created with GMT software

William Hoffman -

Disclaimer: This work is a communications project of William Hoffman, a non-faculty employee of the University of Minnesota, and not the University of Minnesota. It is meant to help inform public discussion of stem cell research and human development.